托福口语需准确把握句子间的关系

摘要:托福口语需准确把握句子间的关系

新托福口语考試中的45秒左右的時间肯定不允许大家一次次地不断阅读某一句子,即便遇到晦涩难懂的句子也是这般。怎么办呢?再次读下来,尝试后面一句中寻找了解前一句(尤其是难句)的案件线索。这一案件线索便是句子与句子中间的关联。因而,精确地掌握句子与句子中间的关联就无外乎一种能非常好地提升阅读了解的方式了。



句子中间的关联各种各样,普遍的有:并列关系、因果关系、递进关系、转折关系和互相表述关联。

Women could and did play a part in this process of settlement. Iceland, for instance, was uninhabited, and a permanent population could only be established if women also made the journey there. (后一句的实际例证为前一句出示表明与表述)

People borrowed more and more money so that they could buy these shares. Because of this, the American people started to believe that share prices could only go up further. (“because of”显著的因果关系)

Astronomy is a science that deals with all the celestial bodies in the universe. Astronomy includes the study of planets and their satellites, comets and meteors, stars and interstellar matter, star systems and clusters. (后一句是对前一句celestial bodies 的进一步表述)

Previously it was believed that due to the Archaeopteryx’s (始祖鸟) underdeveloped anatomy, it would not have been able to fly. However, research by the London Natural History Museum into its brain developed and that it had good vision and a good sense of balance ― all the requirements for a creature to be able to fly. (“However”转折点比照)

阅读时,我们可以依据段落中出現的一些信号词(Signal Words)来分辨句子与句子中间的关联,把握段落发展趋势案件线索,来调节阅读速度,提升阅读品质。

1.显示同样信息的信号词

There has been an upsurge of interest in chamber music. Likewise opera is receiving a boost from increased record sales.

“likewise”这一信号词显示了前边所提及的idea后边也要再一次出現。因而,阅读时看到那样的信号词不必减慢阅读速度。那样的信号词还包含:

and, furthermore, more, than, that, also, likewise, moreover, in addition, what is more, for instance, for example

2.显示构思转折点的信号词

I’d like to go but I’m too busy.

“but”前后左右是彻底不一样的信息叙述,它向阅读者显示了作者的构思在这儿拥有转折点。阅读时,遇到那样的信号词大家需减慢阅读速度,以精确获得作者真实要想说明的意思。这类信号词也有:

although, however, on the contrary, but, in spite of, otherwise, despite, nevertheless, yet

3.显示因果关系的信号词

As a result of the pilots’ strike, all flights have had to be cancelled.

All flights have had to be cancelled as a result of the pilots’ strike.

全部航班被取消的缘故是由于航空员们的出故障;航空员们的出故障造成 了全部的飞机航班迫不得已被撤销。显示因果关系的信号词也有:

for, thus, because, for this reason, so, therefore, as, since, consequently

4.显示次序的信号词:

Internet speeds communication between companies, among co-workers through video-conferences, and among other individuals. First, media companies use the Internet for online news, or to broadcast audio and video, including live radio and television programs, while individuals use the Internet for communication, entertainment, finding information, buying and selling goods and services. Second, the notion of distance disappears thanks to the Internet.

People also enjoy instant messaging to exchange text messages or pictures in real time, with real-time video and sound. Finally, scientists and scholars use the Internet to perform research, distribute lecture notes or course materials to students, they communicate with colleagues, and can also publish papers and articles.

把握住了那样的信号词就把握了作者描述的次序,也就分辨了相对性单独的事实论据。那样的信号词包含:

first, second, third, and so on, then, after, before, next, last, afterward, finally

5.表明结果/小结的信号词

In conclusion, I would like to say how much I have enjoyed myself today.

短语“in conclusion”前边所提及的一些信息将在这儿被归纳总结。读到含有那样的信号词或语句的句子时,应分外留意留意,他们通常会向大家提醒有关段落的关键信息。表明结果或小结的信号词和语句也有:

as a result, finally, therefore, accordingly, in short, thus, consequently, in conclusion, so, in brief, in a word

新托福口语考試中的阅读原材料仅仅一个百十来字的段落,阅读时我们不应把每一个句子都独立起来,只是要把全部的句子连接成一个总体,根据精确掌握句子与句子中间的逻辑顺序来发掘段落的关键实际意义。那样才不会出現读后“不明就里”的状况,才会为稍候的英语口语解答问题充分准备。

雅思考试托福备考toefl共享托福机经




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